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Messagepar Xiaoyeshi » 27 Déc 2017, 01:03

Despite living in the electronic age of Computers http://www.nhlislandersteamshop.com/brock-nelson-islanders-jersey-c-15/ , mobiles and internet, there is still no substitute for pen and paper. Even as you browse the Web, you probably have a pen within easy reach to jot down notes, scribble phone numbers, or even to doodle! Modern ballpoint pens are so inexpensive that we don't even think about them anymore -- you might have a cup on your desk that contains a dozen or so different pens that have wandered in from who knows where!
A ballpoint pen is a pen that uses a small rotating ball made of brass http://www.nhlislandersteamshop.com/billy-smith-islanders-jersey-c-11/ , steel or tungsten carbide to disperse ink as you write. All of the pens that preceded the ballpoint used a watery, dark India ink that fed through the pen using capillary action. There were many problems with this technology. For example:
The ink used to flow unevenly.
The ink was slow to dry.
The ink was exposed to the air while it is flowing through the pen, so it would not dry quickly or it would clog the pen.
The ball point pen was what the world was waiting for! The epicenter of the ballpoint pen is, of course, the ball. This ball acts as a buffer between the material you're writing on and the quick-drying ink inside the pen. The ball rotates freely and rolls out the ink as it is continuously fed from the ink reservoir (usually a narrow plastic tube filled with ink).
The ball is kept in place -- between the ink reservoir and the paper -- by a socket; and while it is in tight http://www.nhlislandersteamshop.com/anthony-beauvillier-islanders-jersey-c-24/ , it still has enough room to roll around as you write. As the pen moves across the paper, the ball turns and gravity forces the ink down the reservoir and onto the ball, where it is transferred onto the paper. It's this rolling mechanism that allows the ink to flow onto the top of the ball and roll onto the paper you're writing on, while at the same time sealing the ink from the air so it does not dry in the reservoir.
Because the tip of a normal ballpoint pen is so tiny, it is hard to visualize how the ball and socket actually work. One way to understand it clearly is to look at a bottle of roll-on antiperspirant http://www.nhlislandersteamshop.com/andrew-ladd-islanders-jersey-c-22/ , which uses the same technology at a much larger scale. The typical container of roll-on has the same goals a ballpoint pen does -- it wants to keep air out of the liquid antiperspirant while at the same time making it easy to apply. At this scale, it is easy to see how the mechanism works. Here's a shot of the ball end of a typical roll-on:
If you look inside the container, what you have is extremely simple -- the ball is exposed so it can pick up the liquid antiperspirant:

A ballpoint pen works exactly the same way. The tiny ball is held in a socket, and the back of the ball is exposed so it can pick up ink from the reservoir.
The ball fits into the socket with just enough space to move freely.
The size of a ballpoint pen's line is determined by the width of the ballpoint. A "point five millimeter" (0.5 mm) pen has a ball that will produce a line that is 0.5-mm wide, and a "point seven millimeter" pen (0.7 mm) has a ball that will produce a 0.7-mm line. Ballpoints come as tiny as "point one millimeter" wide ("ultra fine").
Throughout the history of ball pens many refinements in design took place http://www.nhlislandersteamshop.com/anders-lee-islanders-jersey-c-26/ , but the basic structure of the pen has remained the same. In the last 30 years, the ball pen market has seen massive development despite stiff competition from gel pens. Today, Elkos is a dominant player in the ball pen market, along with other manufacturers like Linc, Todays http://www.nhlislandersteamshop.com/alan-quine-islanders-jersey-c-36/ , and Rotomac.
So the next time someone gives you a promotional pen or you buy one at the store, you will definitely recollect the amazing technology behind the ball pens.
Universal healthcare is something provided by the state in many countries around the world. It is defined as healthcare that is free at the point of service to citizens meaning patients do not have to pay to see a doctor or visit a hospital for essential care. What is included within state healthcare systems varies from country to country.

Which Countries Provide Universal Healthcare?

Almost all of the so-called developed world offer universal healthcare, with the United States being the only exception. In America, the US’s Northern neighbour Canada does as do South American and Central American countries such as Venezuela, Costa Rica http://www.nhlislandersteamshop.com/adam-pelech-islanders-jersey-c-40/ , Chile, Argentina and Cuba. The majority of American countries, however, do not. Very few African countries have universal healthcare systems, with Tunisia and Botswana the only two exceptions. This is likely due to many of these being poor countries and it therefore not being affordable or not being a priority for the state. Within Asia and Australasia Australia and New Zealand both have such healthcare systems but the majority of Asian countries do not. Mongolia http://www.nhlislandersteamshop.com/t-shirts-c-2/ , Japan, South Korea and Thailand do though, as do the Middle Eastern nations of the United Arab Emirates and Oman. Europe is where national health services originated and is offered to citizens in most European countries, including all of Western Europe. Poland, Lithuania and Russia are amongst the few exceptions in Eastern Europe.

The Origination of Universal Healthcare

Germany has the world’s oldest healthcare system http://www.nhlislandersteamshop.com/hoodie-c-1/ , which dates back to the late nineteenth century. The United Kingdom followed in 1911. At the time only employed citizens and their families, and those who had contributed financially for five years or more, were offered free healthcare. The National Health Service, or NHS, was established in 1948 when all citizens were included. During these early post-war years the number of nations offering universal healthcare increase as the Declaration of Human Rights was established. Only a few countries didn’t sign the agreement http://www.nhlislandersteamshop.com/customized-c-3/ , which includ. Cheap NFL Jerseys Cheap Jerseys Cheap Jerseys Wholesale Jerseys China Wholesale Jerseys From China Wholesale Jerseys From China Wholesale Jerseys From China Wholesale NBA Jerseys Wholesale Jerseys From China Cheap Nike NFL Jerseys
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